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Primary meristems
All cells of a plant divide during the germination and growth, but they gradually  lose dividing capability. They start growing towards the base (in proximal direction) and focus on special functions in dependence on their positions. This means that meristems move in distal directions, i.e. above-ground grows towards the sunlight and to the root apex (grow in direction of gravity).Dividing character is retained only in the apical cell groups – initials, that occur  at the main root apex, later in lateral roots and on the stem apex and lateral shoots. The initials are directly connected to the embryo cells (archimeristems); and together with the newly divided or just being divided derivates  they form a protomeristem. Its older derivates still capable of dividing form a protoderm (giving rise to the primary epidermis tissues), procambium (whose dividing cells arranged in stripes differentiate into primary vascular tissues – xylem,and phloem) and the basic meristem (predecessor of epidermis, pith, pith rays in stems and roots, mesophyll in leaves).Protomeristem, protoderm, procambium and basic meristem are primary apical meristems responsible for the elongation growth and for the formation of a set of primary permanent tissues; their spacial arrangement decides on the primary structure of organs. The meristems may retain in the latent state (suppressed buds) for a long time. They generate leaves and buds in their trays as basics of
lateral branches. Suppressed buds are a storage which can easily regenerate a plant. On the other hand, they can lead to the formation of various tumours bypathogens. Between stem nods with leaves from the primary meristems, there is an intercalary meristem which allows for later elongation of internodes. The shape of leaves ensues from different activity of the residue meristems on the basis, tip and edge of their blades.
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